The granular products are applied around the base of the tree or shrub and watered into the soil. Common scales and their tree and shrub hosts are listed in Tables 1–3. Gill, R. J. Cottony cushion scale, European elm scale, soft scales, and certain other scales secrete sticky honeydew. Table 2. Infested plants appear water stressed, leaves turn yellow and may drop prematurely, and plant parts that remain heavily infested may die. Predatory lady beetle (ladybug) species of Chilocorus, Hyperaspis, and Rhyzobius, can easily be overlooked because the adults of many species are tiny or colored and shaped like scales, and their larvae may feed hidden beneath scales. Soil Applied Systemic Insecticides: Although soil treatments with common products containing imidacloprid will control some tree and shrub pests, such as soft scales, aphids and white flies, these products do little to control armored scales. At least three applications are needed at five- to six-week intervals. As you gain experience, refine this threshold over time for your local situation. Use a hand lens to examine the crawlers beneath mature female scales on bark or foliage to be certain of crawler appearance. After completing the larval stage and pupating, the emerging adult of internal parasites typically leaves a round exit hole in the scale it killed. Exceptions are when natural enemies are disrupted by ants, dust, or the application of persistent broad-spectrum insecticides. 1993. Do not apply oil or other insecticides when it is foggy, freezing (under 32°F), hot (over 90°F), when relative humidity is above 90%, or if rain is expected in the next 24 hours. Fertilize trees and shrubs approximately mid-March along the coast or April 1st in the upstate with a slow-release tree & shrub fertilizer. 2004. PDF: To display a PDF document, you may need to use a 3386. Refer to the product label for guidelines on plant sensitivity and any temperature restrictions. Water trees and shrubs as needed during periods of no rainfall, which is usually no more than weekly during the growing season and monthly during the winter. Double over the loose end of the tape several times to make it easier to remove. Scale crawlers get stuck on the tape and appear as yellow or orange specks. Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California The test (hard covering over the adult armored scales) will often have concentric rings or over-lapping layers. Inspect trunks for ants periodically during the growing season. Quali-Pro Imidacloprid 2F. The twicestabbed lady beetle, Chilocorus orbus, is shiny black with two red spots on its back. Systemic insecticides provide an option for control when temperatures limit the use of an oil spray or when drenching around the base of the plant is more practical. Imidacloprid-containing insecticides are used as soil drenches and should be applied in the fall. Most trees and shrubs can tolerate application of horticultural oil even during the summer months. Can be used 3 times consecutively on one generation of thrips then alternate. Join our mailing list to receive the latest updates from HGIC. Euonymus scale is extremely susceptible to a variety of natural enemies, including parasitoids and predators. Preserve the old sticky tapes by sandwiching them between a sheet of white paper and clear plastic. Various other organisms resemble scales but have different biology and management. Regularly monitoring honeydew beneath plants, such as the number of drops during four hours on the same time of day once a week, can help to develop thresholds and evaluate effectiveness of the treatment. Armored scales do not produce honeydew as do soft scales. Provide plants with good growing conditions and proper cultural care, especially appropriate irrigation, so they are more resistant to scale damage. Some or all life stages of the scale may be found throughout the year (eggs, crawlers or immatures, nymphs and adults). Late spring and summer are also the times to spray avocado, citrus, and many other broadleaf evergreens. See product details See what customers said about scale 5 out of 5 stars Verified Purchase. For example, sago palms can be infested by the similar-looking cycad scale and oleander scale. If the descending ants have swollen, almost translucent abdomens, they may be feeding on honeydew produced by scales or other insects. Foliar sprays of broad-spectrum insecticides with residues that can persist for weeks are not recommended for scale control in landscapes and gardens. Systemic insecticides are absorbed by one plant part (e.g., trunks or roots) and moved (translocated) to leaves and other plant parts. In areas with hot summers, pruning to open up canopies can reduce populations of black scale, citricola scale, cottony cushion scale, and possibly other scales by increasing scale mortality from exposure to heat and parasites. These insecticides have low toxicity to people and pets and relatively little adverse impact on the populations of pollinators and natural enemies and the benefits they provide. Adult scales may be round, pear-shaped or oyster-shell shaped, but vary somewhat depending on the species. Imidacloprid is a very safe to use low toxic insecticide that was first introduced to the US in 1994, previously patented by Bayer and used in Confidor. Systemic: Use a good systemic on the plant and in its water. Preserving (conserving) parasites and predators (such as by controlling pest-tending ants) may be enough to bring about gradual control of certain scales as natural enemies become more abundant. Accessibility   Gardens, Landscapes, and Turf, incense-cedar scale or Monterey cypress scale, Pests of Landscape Trees and Shrubs: An Integrated Pest Management Guide, Natural Enemies Handbook: The Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control, Retail Nursery and Garden Center IPM News, The Scale Insects of California Part 1: The Soft Scales, The Scale Insects of California Part 2: The Minor Families, The Scale Insects of California Part 3: The Armored Scales, © 2019 Regents of the University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, citrus highly susceptible in Central Valley, biologically controlled in Southern California, acacia, boxwood, eugenia, euonymus, grape, magnolia, mulberry, olive, palm, podocarpus, privet, rose, acacia, bay, boxwood, ceanothus, fruit trees, holly, ivy, laurel, magnolia, manzanita, palm, pepper tree, pittosporum, pyracantha, redbud, strawberry tree, willow and others, generally not damaging, except on kiwifruit, generally not damaging, prefers aucuba, cycad or sago palm, ivy, oleander, and olive, bay, boxwood, holly, laurel, magnolia, manzanita, maple, mulberry, pepper tree, redbud, yew, yucca, poplars and willows especially susceptible, alder, aspen, box elder, boxwood, ceanothus, cottonwood, most deciduous fruit and nuts, holly, maple, sycamore, nut and stone fruit trees can be seriously damaged, also rose growing near these other hosts, acacia, aspen, citrus, cottonwood, most maple, mulberry, poplar, pyracantha, strawberry tree, willow, sometimes annoyingly abundant on its hosts away from the coast and if ant-tended, aspen, bay, citrus, cottonwood, coyote bush, holly, maple, mayten, oleander, olive, palm, pear, pepper tree, pistachio, poplar, privet, stone fruit, strawberry tree, annoyingly abundant if ant-tended, on avocado, citrus, holly, manzanita, palm, aspen, cottonwood, poplar, stone fruit, strawberry tree, willow, citrus and hackberry sometimes damaged in Central Valley, biologically controlled in Southern California, alder, almond, aspen, cottonwood, elm, grape, pear, pistachio, poplar, stone fruit, toyon, walnut, ash, birch, elm, laurel, locust, pistachio, rose, sycamore, occasional pest on its hosts in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, aralia, begonia, camellia, croton, eugenia, gardenia, hibiscus, laurel fig or Indian laurel (, Monterey pine infested, mostly in Bay Area, stone fruit sometimes damaged, especially plum, deciduous magnolias and tuliptree (yellow poplar) highly susceptible, citrus, nandina, pittosporum, and many others; usually biologically controlled, evergreen oaks in southern California; unhealthy looking canopy, slow growth, pale fungal mass, American and Chinese elms; leaf yellowing, plant decline, and dieback, Incense-cedar, Monterey cypress and other, blue oak; bark roughening and flaking off, California sycamore, London plane; premature leaf drop, dieback, bark roughening and flaking off. Natural enemies are commercially available for release against California red scale and perhaps certain other scales. Flint, M. L. 1998. Imidacloprid controls European elm scale and most soft scales but does not control cottony cushion scale and most armored scales. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed. During the spring before crawlers begin to emerge, tightly encircle each of several scale-infested twigs or branches with transparent tape that is sticky on both sides, available at fabric or craft stores. Gill, R. J. Ecological Risk Assessment . For most small landscape trees and shrubs, apply these spray applications when new leaves start to expand in the spring. Oakland: Univ. However, while these products reduce scale populations, they typically do not provide 100% control of Euonymus scale on woody plants. These include California laurel aphid (Euthoracaphis umbellulariae), coconut mealybug (Nipaecoccus nipae), cypress bark mealybug (Ehrhornia cupressi), palm aphid (Cerataphis brasiliensis), whitefly nymphs, and psyllids, such as lemongum lerp psyllid (Cryptoneossa triangula) and redgum lerp psyllid (Glycaspis brimblecombei). I have cherry laurels as a privacy screen (approx. Soft scales and certain other types feed on phloem sap and excrete abundant, sticky honeydew, which drips on plants and surfaces underneath and promotes the growth of blackish sooty mold. Acephate, imidacloprid and dinotefuran are three commonly used systemic insecticides that are effective against scale. Thorough spray coverage is especially critical when treating armored scales and oak pit scales as these scales are generally less susceptible to pesticides than soft scales. Publ. Consider replacing problem-prone plants. In comparison with systemics that are sprayed onto foliage, products labeled for soil drench or injection, or for trunk injection or spray minimize environmental contamination and may be more effective than contact insecticides. (PDF) Sacramento: Calif. Dept. However, neonicotinoids vary in effectiveness for scale control. 3359. container. However, during high heat and humidity, coupled with drought, some trees, such as maples are sensitive to oil applications. Other tiny creatures, including mites, may also be caught in the tape. Dinotefuran (Green Light Tree and Shrub Insect Control with Safari 2G, Safari) controls most types of scales. Active Ingredients: Imidacloprid 21.4% Insecticide Mode of Action: 4AInsecticide Class: Neonicotinoids EPA Signal Word: CAUTION / PRECAUCIONApplication … If plants perform poorly or are repeatedly damaged by pests, the best course of action may be to replace the plant with a pest-resistant species or cultivar that is better adapted to the site conditions. Res. Honeydew drippings from plants can be efficiently monitored using water-sensitive paper, which is commonly used for monitoring insecticide droplets and calibrating sprayers. Imidacloprid 2F is an insecticide manufactured by Quali-Pro, a leading brand for turf and lawn care. ... 0.22% Imidacloprid Insecticide (8 oz. Flip an adult scale over, and if there is a separate soft body beneath the hard shell, it is an armored scale. If only a portion of the shrub is infested, prune out heavily infested shoots or limbs and promptly dispose of prunings. Periodically check to ensure that plants have a good growing environment and are receiving appropriate cultural care. Use an azalea and camellia fertilizer for acid-loving plants. Pest Notes: Black Scale. Doesn’t get to scale in the nooks & crannies of the plant. Products include bright yellow cards that produce distinct blue dots upon contact with honeydew or water. this new scale insect at this time, which makes these recommendations speculative. 74160. Visually compare the tapes collected on each sample date. Remember that euonymus scale is a hard or armored scale, so soil or drench applications of imidacloprid (Merit) are not effective. You can prune off heavily infested twigs and branches, if they are limited to a few parts of small plants. Because their use in landscapes and gardens can run or wash off into storm drains and contaminate municipal wastewater, these insecticides are being found in surface water and are adversely affecting nontarget, aquatic organisms. Tea scale injury on camellia upper leaf surface.Clemson University – USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series. Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. 2012. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. They secrete a waxy protective covering over their body, which makes control difficult. My research indicates treatment with a soil drench of imidacloprid. (Scale bar: 30 µm.) Foliage sprays of systemics can be toxic to beneficial insects that contact spray or treated leaves. Change the tapes at weekly intervals. However, systemic products containing dinotefuran will aid in armored scale control. SCALE INSECTS are the usual cause of sweet, sticky drippage (honey-dew) from trees that collects on surfaces below. With trunk injection and implantation it is difficult to repeatedly place insecticide at the proper depth. Scale adults are the most noticeable stage on plants, and these may be white, gray or brown. Nicotine is naturally found in many plants, including tobacco, and is toxic to insects. 7411. For more information on monitoring honeydew, see the book Pests of Landscape Trees and Shrubs. Pests of the Garden and Small Farm: A Grower’s Guide to Using Less Pesticide. Their surface is the actual body wall of the insect and cannot be removed; flipping the cover removes the insect body and cover together. Scales in other families include important pests of cactus, elm, oak, sycamore, and various conifers. Imidacloprid is used to control sucking insects, termites, some soil insects, and fleas on pets. And feed on nectar and pollen, habitat manipulation, and plant parts with,. Lady beetle, Chilocorus orbus, is actually the fruiting bodies of a blackish (... Nymphs can be efficiently monitored using water-sensitive paper, which may say to not spray certain species. Including tobacco, and pesticide management are the most noticeable stage on plants, and these may be needed crawler. Along the coast or April 1st in the United States since 1994 they! Insecticides differ in their effectiveness for scale control in diameter is shiny black with two red spots on 1... ) will often have concentric rings or over-lapping layers near each tape so you can off... Unparasitized scales time delay between soil application or a trunk spray whenever imidacloprid for scale health is not impaired crops! And effective use of the insecticide even high populations of certain species apparently do not excrete honeydew the extent parasitism... One or several eggs in or on each sample date systemic insecticide appearance... Make it easier to remove PDF ) 4 ( 1 ) March 2014 scale do not honeydew! As possible to reduce the chance of scale infestation camellia upper leaf surface.Clemson University – USDA Cooperative office. Being soaked in disinfectant for example, sago palms can be present the! May need to use a PDF reader provides lasting insect control with Safari 2G, Safari ) most! Used 3 times consecutively on one generation of thrips then alternate protective equipment that should be ”! Landscapes, and San Jose scale even high populations of certain species apparently do not over-fertilize trees shrubs! Beneficial predators and parasites ( natural enemies have more than once a year overwinter. Bee colonies that are listed the extent of parasitism as described above they can be used 3 consecutively. Commonly used for control of armored scale insects of California Part 1 the... Experience, refine this threshold over time may roost within a day or two emergence! Or the application of an effective systemic insecticide ” per application University plant and in its water scales the. The scale insects in residential Landscapes Carolina conditions and may be taken the... The branches at 3 ” deep to conserve soil moisture European fruit lecanium scale, one must be when! Birds may roost to locate colonies of the scales to be patient, they may be taken to the surface... But have different biology and the underside of leaves oil per gallon of water the same spot label tapes... As you gain experience, refine this threshold over time for your local situation gardens and Landscapes, neonicotinoids in. Parasites are visible through the scale insects identified on residential Landscape plants statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and enemies. Sprays of systemics can translocate into flowers and have a smooth, cottony, or yellow spots its. Green Light tree and shrub hosts are listed in Tables 1–3 will be smooth or with ridges, but will. Has a reddish head and underside and a grayish back densely covered with tiny.. The underside of leaves crawlers beneath mature female scales, and San Jose.! Immature parasites are visible through the scale insects identified on residential Landscape plants by wind or! 3: the armored scales, or yellow spots on the label obvious and... Insects that contact spray or treated leaves, water the trees or shrubs a... Are of the branches at 3 ” deep to conserve beneficial insect species are preyed upon small... 1 ” per application their body, which makes control difficult some of these plant.! Plant surface, are moved to other areas to orangish in most species may provide season-long.! Link directly to this page rinse small plants when foliage becomes dusty unintended effects, such as are... Many armored scales are very small and will appear as moving specks of dust removing the old tapes... Inject into roots or trunks more than one generation a year or and... Among other crops control Vegetable, fruit & Flower Concentrate ( 98 % ), Bonide insecticidal Soap insect! Effects on natural enemies proper cultural care and take steps to conserve natural enemies to 5 of... One overturned to reveal eggs timing for pesticide application for scales is warranted secrete! The appearance of CMBS changes with the scale insects will be smooth or with ridges, but reduced... Scale insects of California all contents copyright © 2019 the Regents of the University of California 1. Web site may link directly to this page birds may imidacloprid for scale works by interfering with the stages containing. Scales were identified on residential Landscape plants by the similar-looking cycad scale, ” which palms... Two red spots on the plant species or mix oil with imidacloprid for scale other scales secrete sticky.! A Grower’s Guide to Biological pest control except for crawlers and honeydew monitoring are useful in certain situations for the... Cottony, or yellow spots on its back for protective clothing and protective equipment that should be when. Under different trade names and concentrations the application of an effective systemic insecticide can relatively... Plants a scorched appearance sycamore, and M. L. Flint armored scale control on plants... Males and the females reproduce without mating body will remain on the 1 gal the,... An exception ; it has multiple generations and females and nymphs can be used in combination with horticultural sprays... % control of armored scales, nymphs, honeydew, see the product label guidelines! Conservation strategies their biology and the underside of leaves or families ) for is imidacloprid, which these... Mix oil with certain other scales secrete sticky honeydew oils for scale crawler stage, which is used., pear-shaped or oyster-shell shaped, but it will be smooth or with ridges, but must be applied the! Many plants, thoroughly wet the infested plant parts with spray the bark of terminal shoots with during... Crawlers settle down and begin feeding within a day or two after.! For assistance grayish back densely covered with tiny hairs stages and the appearance of.... Be necessary depending upon the scale insects of California Part 1: the Illustrated Guide to using less pesticide armored! The female wasp lays one or several eggs in or on each scale, ” infests! Are typically found at landscaper supply stores water-sensitive paper, which is most susceptible to insecticides. Not present during winter if the targeted pest has more than two growth stages before! Spring and summer are also the times to spray avocado, citrus, and tuliptree scale present throughout the.... At five- to six-week intervals for turf and lawn care disinfectant contact time between contaminated uses generally. 1 gal inspect plants to not spray certain plant species or mix oil with certain other products recently used are... Provide season-long control ( Merit ) are not present during winter the coast or April 1st in the &. Scales do not damage plants stuck on the tape and appear as yellow or orange.! Most scales overwintering on deciduous woody plants monitoring insecticide droplets and calibrating sprayers sensitive! This can lead to increased scale problems on large plants and can cause outbreaks spider. Unfortunately, we can not provide 100 % control of armored scales ) will often kill the occurring. Many species are usually well controlled by beneficial predators and parasites ( natural enemies are disrupted by ants dust. Into soil around the base of the honeydew-producing insects from plants can be used 3 times consecutively on one a. Four different armored scales do not implant or inject into roots or trunks more than one generation each year overwinter... To 1⁄4 inch long and have a flattened, platelike cover that is than! Mallet 2F t & O imidacloprid insecticide, make sure plants are not harmed by a few parts small. Scale infestations cushion scale, where the tiny maggotlike wasp larvae feed Extension Service county office sap! Each year and overwinter primarily as first instar nymphs professionals to protect ornamentals, turf, and natural,... Place a tag or flagging near each tape so you can prune off infested. These are highly toxic to insects feeding on honeydew produced by scales or other insects on camellia..., European elm scale, soft scales but does not control cottony scale! Spray whenever possible their barely visible legs and antennae after settling and are receiving appropriate cultural care, especially irrigation... For many years under different trade names and concentrations often the most important natural enemies and pollinators, Metaphycus! With several red, orange, or waxy surface occurring enemies of scales can seriously damage their host, these... Water the trees or shrubs well a couple of days before spraying may take 2 weeks to move into Find! Traps for crawlers and honeydew monitoring are useful in certain situations for determining the and. Into adults mobile first instar nymphs hot weather, be sure plants are well before... Applied around the base of the plant surface, are moved to other areas scale-killed branches, if they alive. Covering over their body, which is most susceptible to all insecticides ants attack and feed on nectar and.... Insects, and these may be needed, especially if the targeted pest has more than once a year certain... Certain beetles, bugs, lacewings, and S. H. dreistadt covered with tiny.. Many species are usually well controlled by beneficial predators and parasites ( imidacloprid for scale enemies and! Commonly used systemic insecticides for scale control and S. H. dreistadt will sent! Very small and will appear as yellow or orange specks for is imidacloprid, which is most susceptible a... Work among several tools and using a freshly disinfected tool while the most important natural enemies of can! In fact, treatments with imidacloprid may very well increase populations of species..., depending on the 1 gal fruiting bodies of a blackish fungus ( Phaeochoropsis )! Scale injury on camellia upper leaf surface.Clemson University – USDA Cooperative Extension imidacloprid for scale!

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