Diphthong ει before vowel had been generally monophthongized to a value of [eː] and confused with η, thus sharing later developments of η. The confusion between /y/ and /i/ had begun as early as the 2nd century AD in Egyptian Greek, but it was most probably not generalized yet. The Koine Greek in the table represents a reconstruction of New Testament Koine Greek, deriving to some degree from the dialect spoken in Judaea and Galilaea during the 1st century and similar to the dialect spoken in Alexandria, Egypt. The voiceless aspirates were starting to become fricatives in the north of the Mediterranean [ɸ, θ, x]. loss of openness distinction with ε) to have taken place later; while Allen is not very explicit on this point, this theory seems based on the observation that while both η and αι are confused with ε, αι is not confused with η. , Before a consonant, the diphthong ει had started to become monophthongal in Attic as early as the 6th century BC, and pronounced like ε̄, probably as [eː]. The first clear evidence for fricative φ and θ in Koine Greek dates from the 1st century AD in Pompeian inscriptions. All these explanations are plausible to some degree, but would lead to different dating for the generalization of the same changes. "Learned speech" retained the tonal accent system of Ancient Greek. On the other hand, Latin transcriptions, too, may be exhibiting orthographic conservatism. , From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core, Sample reconstructed phonological systems, Learned pronunciation, 4th century BC until early Roman period, Popular pronunciation, 1st century ΒC – 2nd century AD, Verse texts in the Boeotian vernacular, such as the poetry of, This perceived glide would explain why, in the 5th and 4th centuries BC in Attic, though there was no pre-vocalic, Comparable to the modern pronunciation of, once again, the subscript notation is medieval. Interpretation is more complex when different dating is found for similar phonetic changes in Egyptian papyri and learned Attic inscriptions. Only the pronunciation of the classical Attic dialect of the 5th century BC, including its later … Testimony of grammarians and, to a lesser extent, transcriptions into foreign language are interesting because they can indicate which pronunciation was regarded as standard by learned speakers; however, it has been argued that transcriptions may in some cases be conventional rather than phonetic, and Greek grammarians appear to describe learned pronunciation while ignoring established vulgar pronunciation. Greek phonology may refer to: Ancient Greek phonology, discussing the classical language Koine Greek phonology, discussing the developments between Classical and Modern Greek This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Greek phonology. Pour prononciations modernes de grec ancien souvent utilisés à des fins pratiques, voir Prononciation grec ancien dans l' enseignement. Bibliography *Harvard reference last=Allen first=W. To sum this up, there is some measure of uncertainty in dating of phonetic changes; indeed, the exact dating and the rapidity of the generalization of Koine Greek phonological changes are still matters of discussion among researchers.  It was later monophthongized as [yː] or [y] (depending on when the loss of vowel length distinction took place). By the time the New Testament was written (mid to late 1st century A.D.) koine Greek had become the common language in Israel. A last change (possibly related to fricatization of aspirated stops) is the loss of /h/, which may have begun as soon as the late 1st century BC in Egyptian Greek, seems to have taken place no earlier than the 2nd century AD in learned Attic inscription, and had most probably been generalized by the late Roman times. (See discussion on υ below for subsequent evolution. An intermediate value of /øː/ has been suggested by some. The means of accenting words changed from pitch to stress, meaning that the accented syllable had only one tone option (high) and was presumably louder and/or stronger. While orthographic conservatism in learned inscriptions may account for this, contemporary transcriptions from Greek into Latin might support the idea that this is not just orthographic conservatism, but that learned speakers of Greek retained a conservative phonological system into the Roman period. Koine Greek initially seems to feature diphthong υι, which had been progressively monophthongized to [yː] (written υ for ῡ) in Attic from the 6th century BC to the 4th century BC but retained in other Greek dialects. 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